A roof is the top part of a building that protects against rain, snow, sunlight, wind and extremes of temperature. It is constructed in a wide variety of forms – flat, pitched, vaulted or domed and in combinations – dictated by technical, economic or aesthetic concerns. Roofing materials are usually chosen to be resistant to fire and to provide insulation from the elements. A person who specializes in the construction of roofs is known as a roofer.
The first step in constructing a roof is to install the sheathing. This can be done on a fully built building, or on a frame if it is being constructed over existing walls. The next step is to install the roof cover. This may be a shingle, tile or metal covering. It is also common to use a single-ply membrane such as EPDM or PVC. A common roofing material is asphalt shingles, which are die-cut from heavy sheets of an asphalt-impregnated felt faced with mineral granules that act as a wearing layer and decorative finish. Tiles are generally clay or concrete, but there are some manufactured roof tiles that are made of plastics or glass. There are also many fabricated sheet metal roofing systems that are used, especially in commercial buildings.
Many types of roof see it here require a slope or pitch in order to be waterproof and durable. For example, a thatch roof requires a very steep pitch in order to be watertight and sturdy, while a pantile roof only needs a gentle slope to shed rainwater. In vernacular architecture, some countries have a long tradition of using vegetative roofs that use grasses or other tall plants. These are often very attractive and provide good insulation.
Depending on where the roof is located, the type of roof covering can be determined by local laws and codes. For example, some areas have special requirements for cold climates in which ice dams are a problem. Local building departments should be consulted for these additional requirements.
In the case of a house, a ceiling is usually installed beneath the rafters in order to insulate against heat and cold and to shield living spaces from the noise and droppings of birds that like to nest on roofs. A ceiling can also help to protect the structure below from damage caused by heavy snowfall.
Domestic roof construction consists of the framing and roof covering found on most detached houses in cold or temperate climates. In addition to providing a place for living animals, such as birds and squirrels, to make homes, the roof provides a weatherproof barrier that protects against rain and sun.
Before the trusses can be sheathed, temporary braces are required to hold them in place. To do this, nail the bottom half of a two-by-six board that’s 16 feet long to the center of one back wall, and then nail another two-by-six to the outside of the building about six feet to the left of this first brace.